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How much can I copy?

The list below details the amounts that can be copied and/or communicated under the University's educational licences (i.e. for teaching and administrative purposes). Exceeding these limits or not complying with use conditions is a breach of the Copyright Act, and the copies are illegal.

Uses not covered by educational licences
If your intended use does not fall within these guidelines, contact the Copyright Officer. If you are seeking information on copying for personal use, you should refer to the pages on Fair Dealing.

Using more than is permitted under educational licences
If you wish to use more than is permitted under the licences for educational purposes, then an option is to seek permission from copyright owners.

Types of material

  • Periodical publications - journals, magazines, newspapers
  • Books - published editions, novels, manuals, etc
  • Artworks - paintings, drawings, photographs, engravings, sculpture, buildings, models of buildings, and technical and diagrammatic representations
  • Dramatic works - dances, plays, film scripts, or broadly any work that is intended to be performed
  • Musical works - for example, sheet music of symphonies and popular songs. (Lyrics are classified as a 'literary' work.)
  • Out-of-print works - works which cannot be obtained within a reasonable time at an ordinary commercial price - see the glossary for more information on the 'availability test'
  • Insubstantial portions - 1% or less of literary and dramatic works only
  • Anthologies - collections of poems, some irregularly-published conference proceedings, plays, etc - literary and dramatic works only
  • Sound recordings (from TV or radio) - copies of sound recordings from TV or radio broadcasts reproduced under the University's Screenrights licence
  • Cinematographic films (from TV) - includes everything from home movies to feature films. Universities are able to reproduce copies that have been broadcast under our Screenrights licence. (The script of the movie is protected as a literary work.)

Types of material not covered by educational licences

If the type of item you wish to use is not on this list, then it does not fall within statutory licensing conditions and you will need permission to make copies.

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Periodical publications (journals, magazines, newspapers)

Reproduction:

  • One article from each edition, or more if subject matter closely related
  • Note that reproduction and distribution of material from Library databases may be subject to separate licence conditions. Contact the Copyright Office for more information.

Distribution (hard copies, CDRoms, email attachments):

Communication online (placing on websites):

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Books

Reproduction:

  • In a work greater than ten pages, one chapter or 10% of pages, whichever is the greater (10% of words if electronic source except a computer program or an electronic compilation)
  • This amount can be reproduced per lecturer or student per year
  • More than a reasonable portion - if work is out of print, or not available within a reasonable time at an ordinary commercial price (the availability test).

Example:

A 60-page book may be divided into six chapters. You may copy one whole or part of a single chapter, even though the number of pages copied exceeds 10% of the total pages in the book, or you may copy six (6) pages (10% of total) from throughout the book.

Distribution (hard copies, CDRoms, email attachments):

Communication Online: (placing on websites):

Example:

A lecturer in Nursing places one portion of an anatomy text online within their myReadings unit (say 4% of total item). A lecturer in Human Movement wishes to use another 3% in their unit. The first part of the work must be taken down before the second can be made available. This is regardless of audience, and regardless of the fact that total communicated is less than 10% of the total book. The whole-of-university limits are administered via registration and placement in myreadings.

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Artworks

Reproduction:

  • All of a work that has not been separately published
  • All of an artwork that accompanies or explains the text being copied
  • All of an artwork if copied from an electronic source.

Example:

A diagram in a book that has not been published, for example as a postcard or a poster, can be reproduced in full.

A photo that is included in a page of text being copied can be reproduced without having to investigate whether separately published.

An artwork copied from an electronic source, e.g. a website, can be reproduced without having to investigate whether separately published.

Distribution (hard copies, CDRoms, email attachments):

Communication Online: (placing on websites):

  • More than one artwork from a particular source can be communicated simultaneously as they are works in their own right
  • Must contain Warning Notice
  • Digital copies must be registered
  • Access must be restricted to staff and students
  • Must be referenced.

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Dramatic works

Reproduction:

  • A reasonable portion - in a work greater than ten pages, one chapter or 10% of pages (10% of words if electronic source except a computer program or an electronic compilation) - whichever is the greater
  • This amount can be reproduced per lecturer or student per year.
  • More than a reasonable portion - if work is out of print, or not available within a reasonable time at an ordinary commercial price (the availability test).

Distribution (hard copies, CDRoms, email attachments):

Communication online (placing on websites):

  • Amount as for reproduction.
  • Must contain Warning Notice
  • Digital copies must be registered
  • Access must be restricted to staff and students
  • Must be referenced
  • Only one part of a work may be made available online at one time university-wide, regardless of intended audience.
  • Must be made available only through myReadings.

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Musical works (e.g. sheet music - not sound recordings (see below)

Reproduction:

  • 10% of a work greater than 10 pages
  • More than a reasonable portion if the work has not been separately published.
  • More than a reasonable portion if, after reasonable investigation, a new copy cannot be obtained within a reasonable time at an ordinary commercial price.

Distribution (hard copies, CDRoms, email attachments):

Communication online (placing on websites):

  • Amount as for reproduction
  • Must contain Warning Notice
  • Must be registered
  • Access must be restricted to staff and students
  • Must be referenced
  • Only one part of a work may be made available online at one time university-wide, regardless of intended audience.
  • Must be made available only through MyReadings.

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Out-of-print works

Reproduction:

  • If a retailer or publisher confirms in writing that a work is out of print, or that an electronic copy is not available, then you may reproduce and communicate more than a reasonable portion (including the whole item). Keep a record of inquiries.

Distribution (hard copies, CDRoms, email attachments):

  • Amount as for reproduction
  • Digital copies must contain Warning Notice
  • If greater than 10%/one chapter, item should carry a note identifying it as an "out of print work".
  • Must be referenced
  • Digital copies must be registered.

Communication online (placing on websites):

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Anthologies (some collections of conference papers, collections of poems, etc)

Reproduction:

  • A work of less than 15 pages contained in an anthology (hard copy source).
  • For works in electronic form, all of a work that has not been separately published or 10% of the number of words in a work that has been separately published.
  • More than 10% subject to the availability test.

Distribution (hard copies, CDRoms,email attachments):

Communication online (placing on websites):

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Insubstantial portions

Reproduction:

  • Amount hard copy format - one or two pages or 1% of total pages if there are more than 200 pages
  • Amount electronic form - 1% of the total number of words. Material must appear consecutively
  • Fourteen days must elapse between the making of insubstantial portions
  • Copies must be made on university premises for educational purposes.

Example:

You may copy a page of a book and distribute it to your class. But you can only do this from the same work once every 14 days.

Options:

As only one portion of a work may be communicated at once, you MUST remove access to the first item and before making the second available.

Distribution (hard copies, CDRoms, email attachments):

Communication online (placing on websites):

  • Amount as for reproduction
  • Must contain Warning Notice
  • Must be registered
  • Access must be restricted to staff and students
  • Must be referenced.

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Sound recordings from radio, TV and podcasts of broadcast material

Reproduction:

  • Sound recordings reproduced from TV or Radio under Screenrights licence may be reproduced without size limitations
  • Digital copies must contain a Warning Notice
  • Analog copies must be labelled in accordance with licence conditions.

Note:

Commercially produced sound recordings may be used in classroom settings, provided the audience is restricted to bona fide students and staff, as these are not considered to be public performances. They CANNOT be copied under this licence.

Distribution (hard copies, CDRoms, email attachments):

  • Amount as for reproduction
  • Digital copies must be registered.

Communication online (placing on websites):

  • Broadcasts reproduced under the Screenrights licence can be communicated
  • Must contain a Warning Notice
  • Must be registered (although the item itself does not need to be located in MyReadings).

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Cinematographic films (videos, etc) from TV only

Reproduction:

  • Copies of any items television broadcast on all free to air (ABC, SBS, commercial stations), satellite, microwave pay (e.g. Austar)and cable pay television (Foxtel and Optus Vision) may be reproduced without size limitations.
  • Analog copies or their containers must marked in accordance with licence conditions.
  • Digital copies must contain Warning Notice.

Note:

Commercially produced videos/films may be shown in classroom settings, provided the audience is restricted to bona fide students and staff, as these are not considered to be public performances. They CANNOT be copied under this licence.

Distribution (hard copies, CDRoms, email attachments):

  • Amount as for reproduction
  • Digital copies must be registered.

Communication online (placing on websites):

  • Broadcasts reproduced under the Screenrights licence can be communicated.
  • Must contain Warning Notice
  • Must be registered (although the item itself does not need to be located in MyReadings).

Updated: 24 May 2016